As of 2019, the worldwide research on the medical uses and efficacy of Rhizophora SPP (the genus to which the referenced Rhizophora mangle, L. belongs) is expanding for both internal and topical uses.  When Dr. Anders and Resina Koroi began their initiative to revive the use of this ancient, traditional medicinal plant in the modern dietary supplement and medical - use markets in the US and China, respectively, there were very few articles available in peer reviewed journals.   Ted and Resina have led the way in funding and guiding studies and product development/registration and sales to ensure the value of red mangrove for human health and well-being is made known to the widest possible audience in countries around the world. Scientists, physicians and authors continue to  join our team to bring forward the power and reliability of red mangrove phytochemistry as a remarkable natural support for human health.  
All the while, we have been cognizant of the need to ensure the sustainable access to and harvest of red mangrove on coastlines challenged by climate change.  We funded and conducted studies in conjunction with the University of the South Pacific in Suva, Fiji to determine the best method for pruning, propagating and expanding red mangrove to protect coastlines and fisheries while harvesting a sustainable quantity of plant parts for natural medicinal applications in our products.   
One of the first studies of our initial extractions focused on acute, upper respiratory tract infections was conducted by Dr. Scott Carroll ( co-founder of the Atlanta Allergy and Asthma Institute) to follow up, and compare results with, Dr. Ted D Anders' initial client interview studies. Dr. Anders' study was the first contemporary red mangrove clinical efficacy review to evaluate products derived from his re-discovery and development of red mangrove as a viable modern nutraceutical supplement. 
Further, the pertinence of Dr. Amnon Levy's cooperative literature review to the on-going assessment of traditional herbal medicinals around the world is significant in three ways. First, it is essential that all herbal medicinals, including Rhizophora mangle, receive scientific scrutiny to substantiate claims. Second, the knowledge base pertaining to Rhizophora mangle must be expanded and substantiated as there are historical reports and recent studies from around the globe indicating potential medicinal properties (Hernandez and Perez, 1978; Duke and Wain, 1981); including significant anti-viral properties (Premanathan, Arakaki, Izumi,, 1999). Third, in the case of Rhizophora mangle, it appears the plants provide a unique, reliable, naturally occurring constituent combination which needs to be more thoroughly examined to identify the primary active constituent and other identified constituents as a broad spectrum, complimentary support to primary active constituent action. Such a contribution to the arsenal of health care supplements available to humanity would be useful and noteworthy.
Here is an excerpt from Dr. Carroll's first observational study:

Selection and Description of Participants
During the 12-month time period from February, 2004 through February, 2005, Dr. Scott Caroll, M.D. conducted this initial clinical study focused on the "Fiji Titi /Fiji Tea " product created by Nature's Nurse®. The patient sample included 84 patients between the ages of 3 and 74; male and female. These patients had 2 or more symptoms related to the common cold: nasal congestion; runny nose; sore throat; headache; cough (with or without chest congestion); and malaise.

Technical Information
The recommended protocol for product use was: 2 full droppers of concentrated fluidextract to 1 cup of water, 4 times daily (morning, noon, evening and bedtime) for two days.

The fluidextract concentrates used were of two types. One was a hot water decoction. The concentrate was designed to equal the potency of the traditional dosage created from 50g of dried, crushed rhizome in 8 cups of water. The extraction was obtained with a hot water decoction, which produced a dark brown, thick liquid; the UV spectrum of which was 280nm, Abs. 0.2972. The yield was 29 ml/100g from crushed, dried Rhizophora. The final concentration was 3.4g/ml (d~1.2) or 2ml/cup of water. This fluidextract requires the inclusion of a preservative, sodium benzoate, in the finished product. The delivery system was a 1 oz. brown actinic bottle with a 1 ml capacity dropper.

The second was a proprietary glycerin-base alcohol-free fluidextract, called a '3-3-6™' processed fluidextract. The 3-3-6™ process is a serialized technology designed to produce a finished fluid extract that equals or exceeds the efficacy of the traditional dosage created from 50g of dried, crushed rhizome in 8 cups of water. The 3-3-6™ fluid extraction results in a dark brown, high viscosity liquid, with a specific gravity of 1.190, and a 3-3-6™ standardized brix density of 53 (+/- 2% ). The yield is based on a proprietary ml/g range of 29ml/Xg (noting that much less Rhizophora raw material is used in 3-3-6™ fluid extract process than that used for hot water decoction) from crushed, dried Rhizophora. The 3-3-6™ fluid extract requires no preservative (or refrigeration after opening), even claiming a labeled shelf life of 3 years. The delivery system was a 1 oz brown actinic bottle with a 1 ml capacity dropper. Approximately 50% of the patients received the hot water decoction and 50% received the glycerine-based fluid extract.

Of the 84 patients from whom this researcher was able to obtain a clinical report, the following results were obtained. Seventy nine percent (79%) of overall participants had either complete resolution of symptoms before or by the end of the 48 hour treatment period (the vast majority) or in those few remaining, significant improvement. Twenty one (21%) of the patients were not improved. Of significant note is that several of the patients with recurrent sinusitis were in the 79% group. These patients thereby avoided taking antibiotics; which more of them would have been apt to do, based on prior experience in this type of patient. These results were overall concomitant for both the 3-3-6™ fluidextract and water decoction preparations, though it was noted that some respondents reported when they used half the dose for the 3-3-6™ fluidextract they still obtained results concurrent with the standard prescribed dose for this study.

There is clear evidence that the hypothesis was supported. Rhizophora mangle L. appears to be effective for the vast majority of clients within 48 hours. Even patients with resistant, recurring sinus infections who invariably wind up on an antibiotic experienced resolution of their symptoms. Of course, these results need to be replicated in a controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Nevertheless, the impact appears to be significant and should be stimulus for further research." *

Please click on the PDF below to view the extensive research bibliography from Ted Anders' and Resina Koroi's book, "Breath of Life: The Vital Role of Red Mangroves in Human and Planetary Health."

Research Bibliography from The Breath of Life

*This statement has not been evaluated by the US Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.


*The products listed on this site are not to be considered substitutes for professional medical care. If you are sick, you should consult your physician. If you are currently taking any medication, consult your physician before you decide to use any herbal or other natural related products. This site and the products listed on it are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any specific disease, nor are they appropriate as a substitute for professional care or medical consultation. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.