The study was conducted by Dr. Scott Carroll to follow up on, and compare results with, Dr. Ted D Anders' initial client interview study. Dr. Anders' study was the first contemporary red mangrove clinical efficacy review to evaluate products derived from his re-discovery and development of red mangrove as a viable modern nutraceutical supplement. The pertinence of Amnon Levy's (Phd) literature review to the on-going assessment of traditional herbal medicinals around the world is significant in three ways. First, it is essential that all herbal medicinals, includingRhizophora mangle, receive scientific scrutiny to substantiate claims. Second, the knowledge base pertaining to Rhizophora mangle must be expanded and substantiated as there are historical reports and recent studies from around the globe indicating potential medicinal properties (Hernandez and Perez, 1978; Duke and Wain, 1981); including significant anti-viral properties (Premanathan, Arakaki, Izumi, et.al., 1999). Third, in the case of Rhizophora mangle, it appears the plants provide a unique, reliable, naturally occurring constituent combination which needs to be more thoroughly examined to identify the primary active constituent and other identified constituents as a broad spectrum, complimentary support to primary active constituent action. Such a contribution to the arsenal of health care supplements available to humanity would be useful and noteworthy.
Selection and Description of Participants
During the 12-month time period from February, 2004 through February, 2005, Dr. Scott Caroll, M.D. conducted this initial clinical study focused on the "Fiji Titi /Fiji Tea " product created by Nature's Nurse®. The patient sample included 84 patients between the ages of 3 and 74; male and female. These patients had 2 or more symptoms related to the common cold: nasal congestion; runny nose; sore throat; headache; cough (with or without chest congestion); and malaise.
The recommended protocol for product use was: 2 full droppers of concentrated fluidextract to 1 cup of water, 4 times daily (morning, noon, evening and bedtime) for two days.
The fluidextract concentrates used were of two types. One was a hot water decoction. The concentrate was designed to equal the potency of the traditional dosage created from 50g of dried, crushed rhizome in 8 cups of water. The extraction was obtained with a hot water decoction, which produced a dark brown, thick liquid; the UV spectrum of which was 280nm, Abs. 0.2972. The yield was 29 ml/100g from crushed, dried Rhizophora. The final concentration was 3.4g/ml (d~1.2) or 2ml/cup of water. This fluidextract requires the inclusion of a preservative, sodium benzoate, in the finished product. The delivery system was a 1 oz. brown actinic bottle with a 1 ml capacity dropper.
The second was a proprietary glycerin-base alcohol-free fluidextract, called a '3-3-6™' processed fluidextract. The 3-3-6™ process is a serialized technology designed to produce a finished fluid extract that equals or exceeds the efficacy of the traditional dosage created from 50g of dried, crushed rhizome in 8 cups of water. The 3-3-6™ fluid extraction results in a dark brown, high viscosity liquid, with a specific gravity of 1.190, and a 3-3-6™ standardized brix density of 53 (+/- 2% ). The yield is based on a proprietary ml/g range of 29ml/Xg (noting that much less Rhizophora raw material is used in 3-3-6™ fluid extract process than that used for hot water decoction) from crushed, dried Rhizophora. The 3-3-6™ fluid extract requires no preservative (or refrigeration after opening), even claiming a labeled shelf life of 3 years. The delivery system was a 1 oz brown actinic bottle with a 1 ml capacity dropper. Approximately 50% of the patients received the hot water decoction and 50% received the glycerine-based fluid extract.
Of the 84 patients from whom this researcher was able to obtain a clinical report, the following results were obtained. Seventy nine percent (79%) of overall participants had either complete resolution of symptoms before or by the end of the 48 hour treatment period (the vast majority) or in those few remaining, significant improvement. Twenty one (21%) of the patients were not improved. Of significant note is that several of the patients with recurrent sinusitis were in the 79% group. These patients thereby avoided taking antibiotics; which more of them would have been apt to do, based on prior experience in this type of patient. These results were overall concomitant for both the 3-3-6™ fluidextract and water decoction preparations, though it was noted that some respondents reported when they used half the dose for the 3-3-6™ fluidextract they still obtained results concurrent with the standard prescribed dose for this study.
There is clear evidence that the hypothesis was supported. Rhizophora mangle L. appears to be effective for the vast majority of clients within 48 hours. Even patients with resistant, recurring sinus infections who invariably wind up on an antibiotic experienced resolution of their symptoms. Of course, these results need to be replicated in a controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Nevertheless, the impact appears to be significant and should be stimulus for further research.
Duke, J.A. and Wain, K.K. Medicinal Plants of the World, 3 Volumes, 1981.
Hernandez N. M. Rojas and Coto O. Perez, Antimicrobial properties of extracts from Rhizophora mangle, Rev. Cubana Med Trop, 30: 181-187 ,1978.
Premanathan, N., Kathiresan, K., Yamamoto, N., Nakashima, H. In-vitro anti-human immunodeficiency virus activity of polysaccharide from Rhizophora mucronata poir, Biosci, Biotechnol, Biochem, 63:1187-91, 1999.
Please click on the PDF below to view the extensive research bibliography from Ted Ander's book, The Breath of Life.
Research Bibliography from The Breath of Life
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